Dodole in staroslovanski ritual klicanja dežja


»Da bi le padla kapljica dežja in namočila tole suho zemljo,« sva se pogovarjala z očetom in opazovala nebo. »A veš, da so Indijanci na sveti zemlji obredno plesali in s plesom ter petjem priklicali dež,« mu povem kot zanimivost in tata odgovori, »tako kot Dodole.«
»Kot kdo?«
»Dodole.«
»Kdo so to?«
In zapoje, » Daj Bože sitnu rosu, da narosi ovo polje, oj Dodo, oj Dodole.«

Obred, ki je nastal na Balkanu še pred vso zmešnjavo in še preden so religije raztrgale običaje in narod med seboj razdelile, so bili ljudje povezani z Naravo in častili Božanskost, ki se je odražala v Njej. Dodole so jih imenovali v Srbiji, Paparuda v Romuniji in Peperuda v Bolgariji, so bila dekleta stara od 8 do 12 let, ki so sodelovala v obredu klicanja dežja.
V času suše so se dekleta približno enake starosti zbrala in obiskala domove, vasi in ponekod polja. Vsa dekleta so bila nemaskirana razen enega dekleta, ki je bilo slečeno do golega, na njeno telo pa so privezali rastline in jo obvezali z vsem možnim zelenjem in rožami, da se njena koža ni videla niti malo; s tem je postala del narave. To dekle se je imenovala Dodola, po boginji dežja in oblaka, ženi Peruna, vrhovnega boga starih Slovanov. Obred, ki se ni nanašal na določen datum, se je izvajal ob četrtkih, saj je ta dan posvečen Perunu (Jupitru).
Dekleta so obiskovala domove in Dodola je bila tista, ki je plesala, skakljala in se vrtela, medtem ko so ostala dekleta stala v vrsti in pela. Med obredom je gospodarica hiše z vodo zalivala Dodolo, ko je ta obredno plesala, dekleta pa so pela:
Molimo se Višnjem Bogu
Oj Dodo, oj Dodole!
Da udari rosna kiša
Oj Dodo, oj Dodole!
Da porosi naša polja
Oj Dodo, oj Dodole!
I šenicu ozimicu
Oj Dodo, oj Dodole!
I dva pera kukuruza
Oj Dodo, oj Dodole!
Celotni skupini je nato darovana hrana. Dekleta so tako v času suše hodila od hiše do hiše, od vasi do vasi in klicale dež. Obred se je končal ob reki, kjer so iz darovane hrane pripravile pojedino, del hrane pa so pred obedom darovale reki. V Romuniji pa dekle gre do reke in naredi lutko iz pšenice, katero nato z ognjem sežge in jo vrže v vodo. V vodo odvrže tudi vso zelenje, ki ga je imela na sebi.

S prihodom krščanstva so podobo spreminjale tudi Dodole, ki vedno manj so bile prekrite z obilnim zelenjem in kasneje je imela kakšna le še kak venec rastlinic okrog glave, prav tako pa se je spremenilo tudi besedilo. Ponekod so obredi postali povezani s krščanskimi svetniki, ponekod s cerkvenimi prazniki, ponekod pa so se ritualu pridružili moški ali pa ga docela prevzeli.
Ritual klicanja dežja, ki ga najdemo skoraj v vsaki državi nekdaj skupne države, pa tudi v Romuniji in Bolgariji, govori o skupnosti na Balkanu, ki bila je globoko povezana z naravo in kljub številnim spremembam, izkoreninjanju ritualov in pozabi pod vplivom ”modernega časa” je pesem ostala živa, kakor da bi iz pozabe privrela njena melodija na dan, ogrela srce in priklicala spomin na oj Dodo, oj Dodole.

[ENGLISH]

»I wish that drop of rain will come and soak this dry land« I talk to my father while watching the sky. »You know that the Indians performed a ritual in the sacred land and with dancing and singing they called the rain,« I told him as something he might find interesting, and dad answered, »Just like Dodole.«
»Like who?«
»Dodole.«
»Who are Dodole?«
And he started to sing a song: »God give me a drop of dew, so that field could be moistened, oj Dodo, Dodole.«

Ritual of calling the rain was created in the Balkans before all the confusion and before the religions torn apart old traditions and divided people among themselves. Before all that, people were connected with Nature and worshiped the Divine, that has reflected in Her. Dodole as known in Serbia has known also in Romania as Paparuda and Peperuda in Bulgaria. In the ritual, the girls aged 8 to 12 participated in calling the rain ceremony.
During the drought, girls of about the same age gathered and visited homes, villages, and fields. All the girls were unmasked except one. This girl was stripped naked and on her body, they tied up the plants and bound on her all the possible greens and flowers that her skin was not visible. With this costume, she became part of nature. This girl was called Dodola, after the goddess of rain and cloud, the wife of Perun, the supreme god of the old Slavs. The ritual, which did not relate to any specific date, was performed on Thursdays since this day is dedicated to Perun (Jupiter).
The girls visited homes and Dodola was the one who danced, jumped, and spinning around, while the other girls stood in line and sing. During the ritual, the mistress of the house sprinkled Dodole with water while she was dancing and other girls sang:
We pray to the Holy God
Oh, Dodo, oj Dodole!
So the dew rain come
Oh, Dodo, oj Dodole!
To moisten our fields
Oh, Dodo, oj Dodole!
And wheat and stores for the winter
Oh, Dodo, oj Dodole!
And two feathers of corn
Oh, Dodo, oj Dodole!
To the whole group, the food is given and they move on to the next house and the next village to call the rain. The ritual ended near the river, where they prepared a feast from the food they were given, and before the feast started, they give part of that food to the river as the offering. In Romania Dodale or Paparude go to a flowing water and make a doll out of wheat. The doll is put on fire and thrown into the water, followed by the leaves clothes.

With the arrival of Christianity, the image of Dodole also changed, she was no longer covered with abundant greens, and later she had only plants around heads, but also lyrics of the song was changed. In some places, rituals have become associated with Christian saints, sometimes with church holidays, and in some cases, man has joined the ritual or as in other places they completely take over.
The ritual of calling rain, which is found almost in every country of once common state, as well as in Romania and Bulgaria, speaks about a community in the Balkans, which was deeply connected with Nature and despite numerous changes and eradicating of rituals and with influence of “modern times” the song still remained alive. As if the melody came from a deep forgotten place and has the ability to touch the heart and wake the memory of the song that is still calling us to sing, Oj Dodo, oj Dodole.

***

DODOLSKE PESMI

Molimo se višnjem Bogu,
Oj dodo, oj dodo le!
Da udari rosna kiša,
Oj dodo, oj dodo le!
Da porosi naša polja,
Oj dodo, oj dodo le!
I šenicu ozimicu,
Oj dodo, oj dodo Le!
I dva pera kukuruza,
Oj dodo, oj dodo le!

Naša doda Boga moli,
Oj dodo, oj dodo le!
Da udari rosna kiša,
Oj dodo, oj dodo le!
Da pokisnu svi orači,
Oj dodo, oj dodo le!
Svi orači i kopači,
Oj dodo, oj dodo le!
I po kući poslovači,
Oj dodo, oj dodo le!

Kakav junak gorom jezdi:
Nosi sablju u zubima,
Nosi kišu u očima —
oj dodo, oj dodole!

PREVRNU SE VEDRO NEBO
Nasred sela vita jela,
oj dodo, oj dodole!
vita jela čak do neba.
Na vr’ jele b’jela vila.
U krilu joj ogledalo;
okreće ga, prevrće ga.
Prevrnu se vedro nebo
i udari rosna kiša —
oj dodo, oj dodole!

OPET KAD IGRA DODOLA
Udri, udri, sitna kiša,
oj dodo le!
moj božole!
te porosi žito, vino,
oj dodo le!
moj božole!
i tri pera kukuruza,
oj dodo le!
moj božole!
i lanove za darove,
oj dodo le!
moj božole!
i kudelju tankoviju,
oj dodo le!
moj božole!

OPET KAD IDU PREKO SELA
Mi idemo preko sela,
oj dodo le!
moj božole!
a oblaci preko neba,
oj dodo le!
moj božole!
Iz oblaka prsten pade,
oj dodo le!
moj božole!
ujagmi ga kolovođa,
oj dodo le!
moj božole!

PLES ZA PRIZIVANJE KIŠE
Dajbože, Svebože
kap sile Perunove
da se vatrom
da se vodom
duša zemlji vrati,
da je ljubav napoji
srce da oživi
kamen da zapeva
drvo da prolista
zelen-travke
rosu da popiju
žedne usne
kiše da se napiju.

***

VIDEO

Srbija:

Romunija: 

Bolgarija:

***

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