Pomembnost volka za ekosistem


the-importance-of-wolf

Izjemno bitje, od čigar veje prihaja človekov najboljši prijatelj, ima v različnih kulturah različen pomen. In ko se na vsake toliko pojavi informacija o odstrelu volkov, zveni ta tako brezčutno, pa vendar gre za izjemno bitje, ki ima v ekosistemu izjemno in zelo pomembno vlogo. In preden se pokaže vloga volka v ekosistemu, poglejmo, kakšno simboliko nosi.

Amazing creatures that give us man’s best friend, have in different cultures different meanings. And when from Ministry of the environment information appeared about killing wolves, that sounds so senseless, I wondered if we are aware of the important role, a wolf has in the ecosystem. Are before checking the importance of their role, let’s see what symbolic meaning wolf have.

[Slovenian above | English below]

Pri Nordicih in Grkih je simbolika volka pozitivna in je simbol svetlobe, solarni simbol, junak vojščak saj vidi ponoči. Zaradi moči in bojevitosti je sinji volk stvarnik kitajskih dinastij in mongolske dinastije, pri čemer Kitajska pozna tudi nebeškega volka (zvezda Sirius), ki je varuh nebeške palače katero ponazarja Veliki voz. Ponekod na Japonskem ga kličejo kot zaščitnika pred drugimi divjimi živalmi. Kot simbol plodnosti se pojavlja volkulja v starem Rimu v zgodbi o Romulu in Remu, ta isti simbol se je obdržal tudi v Anatoliji, kjer so ženske klicale na pomoč volka, da bi si pozdravile neplodnost. In medtem ko je v skandinavski mitologiji volk požiralec zvezd, je v evropski folklori uporabljena za strašenje otrok, o čemer govori tudi pravljica o Rdeči kapici in tako številnim otrokom vsadi v domišljijo zgodbo o hudobnem črnem volku. Na evropskih tleh je v različnih ljudstvih volk povezan s čarovniki. Od antike dalje pa so ljudje verjeli tudi volkodlake, kjer naj bi šlo za človeka, ki se zaradi različnih razlogov (prekletstva, magije, ugriza drugega volkodlaka ali je tak od rojstva) ob polni luni spremeni v volku podobno bitje. Volkodlaki naj bi bili imuni na staranje in so skoraj da nesmrtni, razen če se jih ustreli v srce, ali če pridejo v stik s srebrnim orožjem. Za razliko od vampirjev volkodlaki niso občutljivi na relikvije, kot so križi, razpela in blagoslovljeno vodo. In če zvenim kot učiteljica iz Harry Potterja, naj posredujem še zanimivo slovensko ljudsko bajko iz Dolenjske, ki pravi takole …

Zimske večere smo sestre prele, oče, ki so bili dobro star mož in so veliko skusili v svojem življenju, so nam pa kaj pripovedovali, bodisi kakšne storije ali pa kar so sami res prebili na svetu. Ko mi je neki večer brat nagajal, obregla sem se vanj: “Oh, ti grdi volkodlak, ti!” Oče so me posvarili ter so dejali: “Franica, da mi nikoli več kaj takega ne rečeš! Ti še ne veš, kaj je to volkodlak. Volkodlak je pol volka, pol človeka. Kdor je od rojstva volkodlak, tisti je v dolnjem koncu volk, kdor je pa zaklet, tisti pa v gornjem kraju.” Potlej so nam pa tole pripovedovali:
Nekoč sem šel s konji po vino na Hrvaško; z menoj je bil neki Bukovčan, ki je vozil “suho robo”. Po poti sva se menila – kakor imajo vozniki navado – kaj je kdo izmed naju pri vožnji že hudega skusil ali čudnega videl. Ko prideva globoko dol v Hrvate in se tako meniva, reče mi Bukovčan: “Glej, France, kadar hodim po tem samotnem kraju, vselej mi je tako strašno dolgčas, ker me je nekoč tukaj spremljala taka zverina. Kar tako je prišlo k meni pol volka, pol človeka, pa me je ves čas spremljalo ponoči in podnevi. Pri kateri gostilni sem se ustvil, ustavil se je tudi on; jaz sem šel noter pit, on je ostal zunaj pri konjih; jaz sem se bal, da ne bi konj kaj poškodoval. Tako me je spremljalo do doma. Ko pridem domov, rečem ženi: “Jezus, komaj živ sem prišel domov. Taka zverina me je spremljala, pol volka, pol človeka.” Hočem se skozi okno ozreti, pa ga spet zagledam. Poglej no,” pravim ženi, “saj že skoz okno gleda!” potlej je pa rekla ona: “Beži, beži, gotovo kaj potrebuje.” Pa je šla in odrezala kos kruha ter mu ga vrgla skoz okno: “Na, jej v imenu božjem, kar potrebuješ, da bi bil rešen!”
Potlej se ji je pa prišel v hišo zahvaliti: “Srečna ti in tisti, ki te je naučil. Glej, že toliko in toliko voznikov in tovornikov sem spremil, a noben mi ni tega storil, da bi me bil rešil. Bili smo trije bratje, pa so nas mati zakleli. Prosili smo jih kruha, ko so ga ravno iz peči jemali; ko smo jih kruha prosili, rekli so mati: ‘Nate, hudičevi volkodlaki, požrite, da boste siti!’ – Pa smo se precej tisti trenutek v volkodlake izprevrgli ter se v gozd razšli. Bili smo trije bratje, no, jaz sem zdaj rešen, onadva pa sta bogvekam šla in če sta že rešena ali ne. Ko smo se razšli, bili smo še mladi, zdaj sem pa še siv.”
Moj oče so bili dobro stari, ko so nam to pripovedovali; umrli so pred tremi let, imeli pa so osemdeset let.

In če so v Evropi otroke strašili z volkom, prihaja čisto druga podoba iz modrosti starodavnih indijanskih plemen, kjer je volk totemska žival, poznana tudi kot žival moči, živalski varuh ali nagual in je po njihovem mnenju osebni in dobrodejni duhovni vodnik in varuh, ki nas spremlja skozi vse življenje. Kakšno še simboliko volk nosi, pa pripoveduje zgodba o dveh volkovih, ki pravi …
Nekoč, pred davnimi časi, je ostareli Indijanec Cherkee pripovedoval svojemu vnuku zgodbo o dveh volkovih in pravi, da se v notranjosti vsakega človeka odvija boj med dvema volkovoma. Prvi volk predstavlja zlo in nosi jezo, zavist, ljubosumje, pohlep, samopomilovanje, bes, laž, sebičnost in nasilje. Drugi volk pa nosi dobro, in sicer mir, ljubezen, nesebičnost, resnico, sočutje, srčnost, vedrino, upanje in pripravljenost pomagati.
Po premisleku vnuk vpraša:
“Kateri volk na koncu zmaga?”
“Zmaga vedno tisti, ki ga hraniš!” je odgovoril starec.

Očitno v Sloveniji ni pomembno, katerega volka hraniš, bolj je pomembno, da oba in še 8 zraven odstraniš. Tako je Ministrstvo za okolje in prostor dalo osnutek odloka o poboju 93 medvedov in 10 volkov. Zanimivo zveni beseda odstrel, ki ima podobno čustveno noto kot pograbiti listje; pa v bistvu gre za poboj 93 medvedov in 10 volkov. In glede nato, da so volkovi v Evropi ogrožena vrsta, število 10 niti ni tako majhno.
Kaj lahko naredi majhno število vokov govori zgodba ameriškega nacionalnega parka Yellowstone, kjer so ponovno naselili volkove. Ti so namreč spremenili strukturo ekosistema, ga harmonizirali, obnovili življenje in posledično privabili številne nove vrste, tako živalske kot rastlinske, s čimer so obogatili celoten ekosistem, pri čemer najbolj preseneča pozitiven odziv reke na volkove. In ko vidiš, da ena majhna skupinica volkov omogoča rast in razvoj na tako številnih področjih, potem takem ima enako močan sicer z obratnim vplivom na ekosistem poboj skupinice  desetih volkov.

Vse v naravi ima svoje mesto in svoj namen, vse je med seboj povezano in regulirano, vprašanje le, če se človek zaveda svoje posledice, ko določi kvoto, koliko česa bi naj bilo potrebno odstreliti ob čemer se sprašujem, kako so do določene kvote prišli. In resnično me zanima, kateri lovec si bo kot trofejo prepariral glavo volka, ki krasila bo steno njegove dnevne sobe, kjer se bo lahko drugim pohvalil, da je z golimi rokami z razdalje 30 metrov ubil ogroženo bitje.

Če želiš, lahko sodeluješ pri ohranjanju volkov s podpisom peticije, do katere prideš s klikom na PETICIJA.

pero-barvn3

Because wolf sees at night is a positive, solar symbol, hero warrior to an ancient Greeks and to a Chinese and Mongol dynasty is a symbol of power, in China is also knows as a heavenly wolf (star Sirius) and the guardian of the celestial palace that represent the Big Dipper. In Japan is know as a protector against other wild animals and as a symbol of fertility occurs in ancient Rome as a story of Romulus and Remus. The same symbol has in Anatolia, where women called wolfs for help when dealing with infertility. In Norse mythology represents stare eater and in European folk tales is used for scaring children. An example how still wolfs is used to scare children in well know story of Red riding hood when so many children at early age hear about the wicked black wolf. In many different European nations wolf were connected with wizards and witches and since antiquity, people in Europe believe in an existence of werewolves, where a man from various reasons turn into the wolf-like creature each time when the moon is full. They are even stories how one become a werewolf, either is from birth or magic, bad spell or person was bitten by another werewolf. They are almost immortal unless they are shot through the heart or if they come in contact with silver; unlike vampires, they are not sensitive to the relics such as crosses, crucifixes or holy water. And if this sounds like one of the classes from Harry Potter, let me share with you Slovenian folk tales that sais…

During winter night sisters where netting and father were telling stories about his adventures in life. One night brother was teasing me and I said to him: “You ugly werewolf, you!” and my father warns me not ever to say something like that. He said that werewolf is half wolf half man, and who is a werewolf by birth has the lower part of the body as a wolf, but who is cursed has the upper part of the body as a wolf. And then he told us a story that happened to him:
Once I went with horses to another country to buy some vine. With me was some other guy who went to sell his stuff. On the way were we talking as the travelers have a habit to talk about a strange experience that happened to them. Going through an almost isolated strange place he told me:
“See, France, when I walk in this secluded path, I’m always terribly bored, because I was once here accompanied by a beast. It comes to me half wolf, half human, and I was followed day and night. And in each pub, I stopped this beast stopped as well, when I entered to drink, he was outside by horses. And so he was fallowing me to my house. When I get home I tell my wife: “Jesus, I barely got home alive. Such a beast is following me, half wolf, half man.” I went to the window to look outside, but he was there again. “Look,” I said to my wife, “he is looking in!” Then she said: “Well certainly need something.” So she cut a piece of bread, and threw it out through the window: “Here, eat in the name of God, and what you need let it be solved!”
Then he comes into the house to thank her: “Lucky you and those who taught you that. I was following so many travelers and none did that to save me. We were three brothers and our mother swore us when we asked her to eat warm bread that was just taken out of the oven and she said: ” Here you have devil werewolf, eat so you will be full!” And in that moment we become werewolves and run into the forest. We were three brothers, now, I am saved, but I do not now the destiny of my brothers. “
That was the story told by my father who was a good man and he died tree years ago when he was eighty.

It’s interesting to see how wolf was as a tool to scare children in Europa and at the same time have a totally different meaning in the wisdom of native Indian tribes, where a wolf is a totemic animal, know as the power animal, the guardian or nagual that helps a person and give them spiritual guidance and is also a guardian, who accompanies throughout life. And what other symbol does it have is beautiful put in Cherokee story about two wolfs that sais …
An old Cherokee is teaching his grandson about life. “A fight is going on inside me,” he said to the boy.
“It is a terrible fight and it is between two wolves. One is evil – he is anger, envy, sorrow, regret, greed, arrogance, self-pity, guilt, resentment, inferiority, lies, false pride, superiority, and ego.” He continued, “The other is good – he is joy, peace, love, hope, serenity, humility, kindness, benevolence, empathy, generosity, truth, compassion, and faith. The same fight is going on inside you – and inside every other person, too.”
The grandson thought about it for a minute and then asked his grandfather, “Which wolf will win?”
The old Cherokee simply replied, “The one you feed.”

Apparently, in Slovenia does not matter which wolf you feed, the more important is that you kill both of them and 8 others. Et least that the Ministry of the environment said when they prevail information about killing 93 bears and 10 wolves until September 2017. Given that wolves are an endangered species, the number 10 is not so small. What can a small number of wolves do is nicely represented in a story from Yellowstone National Park, where wolves were re-settled. Wolves changed there the entire structure of the ecosystem, restore life and consequently attracted many new species, both animal and plant, which have enriched the entire ecosystem and the most surprising positive response came even from the river and who wolves changed it, for better of course. And when you see what a positive impact a small group of wolves has, then is easy to understand what is the impact when the process goes in a negative way and by killing these beautiful creatures.

Everything in nature has its place and purpose, everything is connected and regulated and a question is if we are aware what are the consequences when deciding on quotas for exterminating specific species. And I really wonder based on what they decided the number of animals they want to kill. And how can Ministry reinsure that this kind of action is necessary and it’s not only pleasure killing so some guy will have stuffed head of a wolf hanging out from a wall in his living room where he can brag to his friends how 30 meters away he killed with his bare hands and one bullet an endangered species. If you want to support lives of wolves in Slovenia you can sign a petition by click on PETITION or find in your local area how you can contribute to lives of wolves. 

How wolves change rivers

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